How serotonin and dopamine are connected to each other?


Serotonin and dopamine are neuromodulators that interact and influence various neural circuits in the brain, often having opposing effects on our behavior and emotional state. of the discusses that while dopamine is commonly associated with motivation, craving, and reward, serotonin is more typically activated in response to situations that elicit happiness and contentment, not promoting as much action as dopamine does 1.

Dopamine generally promotes a focus on external goals and the pursuit of things outside oneself, also called exteroception, while serotonin is associated with contentment and the immediate here and now, referred to as interoception 2. Serotonin does not stimulate action as much as dopamine does; instead, it tends to promote stillness and a feeling of having enough resources 3.

MDMA and Neuromodulators

Andrew explains the unique effects of MDMA on the brain and body. MDMA leads to large increases in both Dopamine and Serotonin, which creates a state unlike any other chemical state normally experienced. This unique circumstance is why people under the influence of MDMA in a therapeutic setting tend to report immense feelings of connection or resonance with people or things.

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There is also a unique compound called MDMA which leads to significant increases in both dopamine and serotonin simultaneously, creating a state unlike any normal chemical state experienced. This results in strong feelings of connection and resonance with people or things for those under its influence 1. MDMA affects the serotonin one B receptor, increasing social connection and empathy, while dopamine reinforces motivation, leading to a desire to perceive others as kinder and to be kinder to oneself 4.

In summary, serotonin and dopamine can be active in parallel, with dopamine more linked to pursuit and seeking and serotonin more to pleasure and satisfaction with what one already has. They collectively modulate the likelihood of certain neural circuits being active and can influence one another, such as serotonin influencing dopamine release and vice versa 5.